Soviets Groomed Kim Il Sung For Leadership
Vladivostok News, January 10, 2003
[Kike] Grigory Mekler was a Soviet ‘spin doctor’ ordered to help North Korea’s now-demised leader Kim il Sung climb to power in 1945.
Now a 90-year-old pensioner, [Kike] Mekler said in an interview that he had spent a year touring North Korea with Kim Il Sung, gleaning the leader mass popularity.
In April 1945 army chiefs in the Russian Far East were ordered to find a suitable leader for a new Korean state, and [Kike] Mekler, a propaganda expert, was one of those entrusted with the task.
“Imagine what a responsibility it was. Basically the future of an entire nation was at stake,” said [Kike] Mekler.
Marshal Meretskov, Commander of the Far East Front, asked [Kike] Mekler whether he had heard of a man called Kim Il Sung.
In fact [Kike] Mekler had met Kim Il Sung in 1944, when the Korean was training at a Soviet army camp for Chinese and Korean guerillas near Khabarovsk in the Russian Far East. The Soviet officer found out that Kim, who then commanded a Korean battalion, had borrowed his name from the previous commander. Kim’s predecessor, highly respected by Korean guerrillas, was killed in action.
“I want you to work on this person,” said Meretskov, referring to Kim. “At the moment not many people know him. Travel to every corner of North Korea with him. It will be useful for both of you.”
Kim Il Sung, who gained the rank of major in the Soviet army, returned to Korea in 1945 with the occupying forces, and [Kike] Mekler and other Soviet advisers spent a year touring with him, even helping to write his speeches.
“When he was taking his first steps towards power, he didn’t do anything without taking our advice,” recollected the Soviet colonel.
Initially Kim Il Sung experienced some setbacks. “Sometimes after his speeches at demonstrations there was silence,” said [Kike] Mekler. “But later people started clapping.”
[Photo from [Kike] Mekler’s personal archive: [Kike] Grigory Mekler (with his back to the photographer), Kim Il Sung (facing [Kike] Mekler), little Kim Jong Il and an unidentified woman.]
Stalin approved of the choice of Kim Il Sung, believes [Kike] Mekler, and the Korean was “sincerely in love with Stalin.”
Kim Il Sung was invited to Moscow and was taken to a shop for distinguished guests, where they could take any item for free, even a motor car.
Asked what he chose, Kim Il Sung answered, “A car for Kim Jong Il (his son),” and showed [Kike] Mekler a small toy truck.
The Korean leader declared that, “North Korea and the USSR are brothers for all time. Stalin and I forever,” recalled [Kike] Mekler.
[Kike] Mekler also met the current North Korean leader Kim Jong Il as a three-year-old child, and keeps photographs of himself with Kim Il Sung’s family.
Before [Kike] Mekler returned to Moscow, Kim Il Sung asked for a final word of advice. “I answered with the famous English phrase ‘Look before you leap’,” recalled the Russian.
Korea was a Japanese colony from 1910 until 1945, when the USSR and the United States occupied the north and south of the peninsula. Neither superpower was prepared to withdraw and give way to an independent Korea, and in 1948 two separate states, the Republic of Korea and the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, were formed.
Kim Il Sung created the North Korean Communist Party in 1945 and was elected premier of the republic in 1948.
Soviet Officer Reveals Secrets of Mangyongdae
Fyodor Tertitskiy, Master’s candidate, University of North Korean Studies
Daily NK, 2014-01-02
Biographies of Kim Il Sung usually start with the same phrase; “Kim Il Sung was born in the small village of Mangyongdae in 1912.” Mangyongdae, located in Pyongyang, has long been designated a site of great significance by the North Korean authorities.
However, an interview published in 2011 by the Russian journal “Sovershenno sekretno” (lit. “Top Secret”) presents new information that contradicts this seemingly well-established fact. The interviewee was Major General Nikolai G. Lebedev, a former member of the USSR’s 25th Army military council that occupied the northern part of Korea from 1945 to 1948.
The original interview was conducted in 1984 by the director of a Soviet-North Korean film commemorating Senior Lieutenant Novichenko, alleged to have thwarted an assassination attempt on Kim Il Sung. The content of the interview was not released until much later.
An English translation of portions of the interview appears below:
In the summer of 1945, our Army was defeating the Japanese in the north of the Korean Peninsula. I was a member of the military council of the 25th Army, commanded by Colonel General I. Chistyakov.
One day I was summoned by the commander and given an encrypted telegram, ordering our Intelligence Service and us, the ideological workers, to find and prepare several Koreans as candidates for the country’s leaders, including the post of General Secretary.
The telegram also contained a long list of requirements for consideration; social background, education, political platforms, and even everyday behaviors and bad habits. The task was fulfilled quickly, but none of the candidates made the grade. We did not want to have an argument with Intelligence, and it would be dangerous to put off the implementation of such an important order, so we decided to ignore several points and began to train the (Korean) cadres.
Every candidate received training from seven instructors. I was responsible for the most important aspect–Marxism-Leninism. We studied for 10 hours a day without a break. Suddenly, a few days before the war with Japan was over, we received a secret order from Stalin; dismiss our candidates for the position of the General Secretary and urgently start training Kim Il Sung, who then held the rank of Captain in the Soviet Army.
I am now aware that the man behind this operation was Lavrentiy Beria. First, in order to be on the safe side, he talked Stalin into ordering the Main Intelligence Directorate (MID) to start looking for a candidate and then gave the order to his own men to search for a Korean residing in the USSR. They complied and found [Kim Il Sung]. Beria never missed an opportunity to reduce the power of the MID, and he did this by subtly attacking its positions and increasing the influence of the secret police. Thus, he reported to Stalin that the MID candidate was not fit to be General Secretary, but that his [Beria’s] candidate Kim Il Sung was the perfect man for the job. In this way, he earned yet more praised from the Generalissimo [Stalin].
Kim Il Sung was soon delivered to us. I thought it odd that he was dressed in a Soviet captain’s uniform and had an Order of the Red Banner on his chest, while the man who brought him was dressed as a civilian. The thickset, round-faced Korean spoke good Russian, but in terms of political qualifications he was utterly ignorant. He failed the Marxism-Leninism exam completely. But we had no choice; we could not just go to Stalin and report that his candidate wasn’t qualified. We had to create a General Secretary from what we were given. Whilst we were teaching him theory, we <…> acquainted Kim with important Koreans in influential governmental and non-governmental organizations. Kim had to understand the importance of his mission and in this he succeeded very quickly and was bursting with pride.
We were living in a hotel under strict guard, where I decided to ignore his habit of constantly showing up wearing his Order of the Red Banner, awarded for patiently sitting at our rear waiting for the war with Japan to start. Kim seemingly only took the Order off when he was going to sleep. Once, in the evening I told him:
“Tomorrow we are going to a demonstration. Behave as if you are already a big leader. Dress modestly, and take off the Order! Understood?”
“Understood,” Kim obediently replied, then went to sleep.
The next morning when I came for him I saw that he was wearing the Order, and I got angry. “Do you understand what you’re doing? You’ve never served in our army and have never set foot in the USSR! Or did you forget?”
He suddenly replied, “Please let me keep it, the people won’t understand what it is.”
I have to confess that in the moment I was most afraid for myself, but fortunately, the Intelligence representative was downstairs so Stalin never came to know how poorly his colleague was prepared to perform as a Head of State. I personally took the Order from him and Kim never saw it again.
▲ This photo was taken during a demonstration hailing the Red Army on October 14th, 1945. The uniformed Korean standing next to Kim is the Soviet Major Mikhail Khan, the highest-ranking ethnic Korean of the Soviet Army, briefly considered as a candidate by the Soviets to lead Communist Korea.
▲ This is how the same photo is presented in modern North Korea. Flags, Soviet generals and the Order that Kim Il Sung was wearing have been removed.
My pupil soon became quite proficient at giving speeches at demonstrations and his popularity rapidly grew. But the American press started to hint more and more often that he was a henchman of the Kremlin rather than a true representative of the people. As time went on, the moment when the future leader would have to meet with foreign correspondents drew ever nearer.
We chose a village for this important meeting. This village was to become Kim Il Sung’s birthplace (later to be turned into a grand memorial). The locals “volunteered” (“if you ever speak of this, we will execute you and your family!”) to testify that Kim was indeed born “in this poor house” and when he was a child “he used to run down this path.” Those who confused the path and the house were forced to leave the village, and their homes were occupied by new settlers who were promised a quiet life in exchange for repeating the exact knowledge of the First House and the Most Important Path.
Despite the “Chief Director” being in Moscow, the performance was perfect. As soon as Kim entered his “home village,” the villagers, crying in happiness, ran to him and immediately organised a feast with flowers, song and dance. Kim was constantly hugged and praised, and one of his “fellow villagers,” a known criminal, hugged the “beloved Kim” so hard that Kim stopped breathing. The criminal was overplaying it so he was carefully removed from the performance. The foreign correspondents were clicking their cameras without any great enthusiasm, but our photographers spared no videotape.
▲ This photo was taken at Mangyongdae. Kim Il Sung appears at the far right. Major Mikhail Khan is first on the left.
Every April from 1967, the DPRK ambassador presented me with a personal invitation from Kim Il Sung to his birthday. When I arrived in Pyongyang a “Mercedes” would be waiting for me right next to the plane and it took me to one of the governmental residences in the suburbs, where I spent about a week in luxury and was denied nothing.
I met Kim Il Sung once on each visit. The Leader usually arrived in the evening; we walked together in the park for an hour or so and talked about old times, then had dinner together and parted ways until next year. That happened 12 times. But in the 13th year the ritual was broken. Kim Il Sung suddenly suggested we go to Pyongyang. We took a tour around the city and then alighted before a neat fence with a memorial plate in front and a big tree growing inside the fence. It took me some time to recognize the place. Back in 1945 Kim and I were there and suddenly we heard the sound of a bullet – a stray or an aimed one, we do not know for sure – whistling over our heads. At that time Kim had no bodyguards and we only had our orderly with us, so we had to duck and crawl to shelter behind a tree. There was no more shooting. We lay low for two more minutes, after which we got up and brushed off our uniforms.
I wouldn’t even call this an incident. There had been more serious attacks on opponents of the emerging communist regime, sometimes several times a day, but a heroic legend formed from this trifling event. The same evening he told it to an inner circle of Soviet generals: “An experienced sniper was constantly shooting at us. And things could have become really bad, if not for the Motherland itself, which turned itself into a tree. It protected my Soviet friend Lebedev and I with an invisible shield. All the while I was remembering my father and mother and how I was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.”
One of the senior generals listened to the story and advised dropping any reference to the father, mother and the Order, but to distribute the rest to the masses. Well, the advice of a superior officer is no different from an order, and at times of war orders are to be followed.
The next month when Kim was giving speeches at meetings and demonstrations, he always included the story, though his actions were presented as more and more vigorous. Thus, the number of snipers increased to twenty, they were shooting first from sub-machine guns and then from machine guns, and not for several minutes, but for an hour. In subsequent versions, Kim was not just lying behind a tree, but he shot back and every bullet from his staunch pistol hit the enemy right between the eyes. No sniper got out alive.
Thirty years had passed when we were once again standing next to this legendary tree. We emerged out of the car and stood in silence near the plate commemorating the most picturesque aspect of the heroic story. The grass inside the fence was expertly trimmed, and fresh flowers were lying behind the tree. It was empty and calm outside; the whole district was cordoned off by guards and in the silence I was suddenly overcome with memories.
In a burst of emotion I forgot myself and tapped the Leader on the shoulder and said, “Think of it, we were laying just here, you do remember, don’t you? So young, so stupid…”
I saw the bodyguards flinch, and all at once they put their hands on their weapons, and the Leader blanched.
“Yes,” he said, after recovering. “You were indeed so young. And very stupid.”
The next year, there was no call from the Korean embassy.
It should be recalled that the interview occurred long after the events took place. General Lebedev did remember some details incorrectly. Most notably, he claimed that Kim Il Sung was not permitted to wear the Order during the October 14th demonstration, while in reality he was.
Nevertheless, the most pertinent facts presented in the interview – such as Kim Il Sung being approved by Stalin for the position of North Korea’s leader only a few days before the end of Soviet-Japanese war (i.e. prior to September 2nd, 1945) and that Mangyongdae is not his native village – are very likely to be correct.
Kim Il Sung’s Soviet Image-Maker
By Anatoly Medetsky, Moscow Times, Jul. 22 2004
[Photo: “Mekler holding a Korean newspaper with a photograph of himself as a young Soviet officer with Kim Il Sung in 1945.”]
When World War II ended, and the Korean peninsula was divided into Soviet and U.S. occupation zones, South Korean radio began reporting that the leader of communist North Korea, Kim Il Sung, was not an ethnic Korean. At a time when Koreans ached for a leader of their own after decades of Japanese subjugation, Kim’s grassroots popularity appeared to be in jeopardy.
The job of masterminding a response to the South Korean claims fell to Lieutenant Colonel Grigory Mekler, the top Soviet propaganda officer in Korea.
Mekler organized a walking tour to Kim’s native village, Mangyongdae, just a few kilometers from Pyongyang. Radio announcements invited people to join the tour, and eventually crowds of supporters followed Kim to the village. They were able to see Kim’s home and relatives, and feast on plentiful food laid out on long tables. Mekler was by Kim’s side for the next year, helping the future Great Leader climb to power.
Today, Mekler, a 95-year-old pensioner paralyzed from the waist down, lives in a modest Moscow apartment. In a recent interview, he vividly recalled the time he spent grooming Kim to lead a country that has become one of the world’s most authoritarian nations.
Head of the propaganda department in the 25th Army in the Far East, Mekler first met with Kim in 1944, during an inspection of a Korean anti-Japanese guerrilla unit near Khabarovsk. Mekler, then in his mid-30s, was just a couple of years older than the future North Korean leader.
At the time, Kim commanded a battalion of Korean guerrillas, part of a joint Chinese-Korean brigade that fought Japanese troops occupying China and Korea. The Korean and Chinese fighters had fled across the Soviet border from superior Japanese forces in the early 1940s, and had since been stationed in Vyatsk. It was there that Kim’s son and successor, Kim Jong Il, was born in 1942.
On a visit to the camp, Mekler had a conversation with Kim and said he appreciated his education, political beliefs and his facility with Russian and Chinese.
Korean fighters told Mekler that Kim enjoyed great authority. “He was exacting, but polite rather than rude,” Mekler said. “He was not only respected, but liked.”
After the 25th Army expelled the Japanese from the north of the peninsula, the Soviets chose Kim to head the North Korean Communist Party and an interim government in 1945. Mekler said his recommendations played a role. He was then ordered to groom Kim for the job.
“Work with Kim Il Sung was comprehensive,” Mekler said. “He was tied to me from sunup to sundown.”
Mekler noted that people revered Kim, knowing by word of mouth about his guerrilla attacks on Japanese troops. But few Koreans actually saw him. “They heard about guerrillas and a real hero among them,” Mekler said.
Kim’s real name was Kim Sung Chu, but in the 1930s he adopted the name Kim Il Sung after a famous Korean guerrilla leader of the early 20th century, according to historian Andrei Lankov.
Some South Korean historians pushed the theory that the second Kim Il Sung died around 1940, and the Soviets gave his adopted name to an unknown who would become their man in Pyongyang. Lankov, however, said this theory was false and Kim was the real thing.
Mekler’s task was to turn the guerrilla leader into a popular civilian leader.
In one trip across Korea, Mekler organized a rally over the accidental drowning of a young girl. The sorrow-stricken parents vowed to kill themselves over the death, and Mekler’s plan was for Kim to dissuade them by displaying great compassion. After mourning music by a Soviet military band drew people to the funeral ceremony, Kim addressed the crowd. “Like Stalin, I will take care of every single working person,” he said, and presented the parents with a trip to a Soviet sanatorium to recuperate. The gesture was a big success, Mekler said.
On the eve of Lenin’s birthday, Kim asked how the Soviet Union celebrated the date; Mekler told him about the subbotnik, a day of voluntary public work, usually on a Saturday. “He said, ‘Come tomorrow and you will see a similar subbotnik,'” Mekler recalled. “And he made good on the promise.”
Mekler carried out a variety of tasks. He was responsible for security, checking guards during events. He recalled telling Kim to take shelter after a bomb exploded at a rally. He also recommended that Kim order assistance to be given to a poet who wanted to write about land reform in Korea.
Mekler insists that Stalin met with Kim in 1945 in Moscow, although some historians disagree. Kim returned to Pyongyang in a state of elation, Mekler said. “Kim Il Sung was ecstatic about Stalin,” he said, adding that Stalin also “was in love with Kim Il Sung and the future of North Korea.”
Mekler praised Kim’s modesty. After the meeting with Stalin, Kim was taken to a special store where he could choose any present for himself — anything, even a car. Kim chose a toy for his 3-year-old son, Mekler said.
Despite working together closely for a year, Mekler said his relations with Kim were purely official. “We never were friends. I had to maintain subordination,” he said. In 1946, Mekler was transferred to a position in Siberia and all contact between the two ceased.
Mekler later saw Kim in Moscow from afar, and they exchanged a wave. The chance encounter, in 1950, was apparently when Kim secretly visited Stalin and the two made the decision to go to war with South Korea.
A linguist by education, Mekler retired from military service and became a researcher at the Oriental Studies Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In this job, he wrote books and newspaper articles and gave lectures about North Korea.
The Soviets kept their involvement with North Korean affairs largely secret. But information began to surface after the Soviet Union collapsed and former Soviet Army officers, such as Mekler, began talking. In much better health at the time, Mekler gave a series of interviews to international researchers, journalists and makers of documentaries.
North Koreans reacted nervously to such revelations about their first leader. In June 1997, TV Center showed a documentary about Kim Il Sung, for which the director, Leonid Mlechin, interviewed Mekler. Mlechin said that after the program aired, he and his family began receiving telephone threats from the North Korean Embassy in Moscow.
When TV Center announced it would show two films — about Kim and Kim Jong Il, who succeeded Kim upon his death in 1994 — someone introducing himself as an employee of the North Korean Embassy called to inquire about the contents and sources for the documentaries, Mlechin said in a recent interview.
After the first film aired, the same person called and warned him against showing the second installment. “If it goes on the air, you will end up in a morgue,” Mlechin recalled the man as saying.
Mlechin and his family complained to the Foreign Ministry and left home. They returned a week later only after a deputy foreign minister called Mlechin to inform him that the ministry had expressed concern to the Korean ambassador. The calls then stopped, he said.
Memories of Zinovy MEKLER
Project «Voices of Jewish settlements. Vitebsk region.»
פיתוח קשרי התרבות בין העמים של ישראל ובלרוס
International Cultural Center «Israel-Belarus»
I was born in a place called Bayevo in 1926. I lived there with mother Golda Gamishevna, father Aron Naftolievich and sister Luba. Father was working as a blacksmith and later moved to Moscow, where the whole family moved afterwards.
Since I was still a child when we left Bayevo, unfortunately I cannot remember all our relatives. I will write about the ones I remember.
Grandfather Naftoly Zalmanovich and grandmother Fruma Ginda lived in Bayevo. Grandfather was a blacksmith. He had brothers Honia, Moisey (I do not remember others), and sons Iosif, Aron, Yefim and daughter Broha.
Not long before the death of Grigory Mekler (he died in Moscow several years ago) a film was made about him. Honia’s sons Boruh, Grisha and daughters Fira, Dina and Luba left Bayevo before the war. Boruh became a pilot, Fira became a metallurgist. Grisha became a diplomat and worked in Korea. With his “participation” Kim Ir Sen was elected in North Korea. There is more information about him in interview with Grigory Mekler at http://www.peoples.ru/military/colonel/mekler.
Iosef Mekler’s wife’s name was Gita. They had two daughters – Sonia and Broha.
Moisey’s family – wife Nehama, daughter Shura, son Ziama. That family lived in Orsha. When the war began, Moisey was drafted to the army and took his family to Bayevo.
These were relatives from my father’s side. All of them, together with the ones I do not remember, were killed by Nazis.
Grandmother Masha’s daughter Nehama got married and lived with her family (husband Iosef Raichman, daughters Luba and Galia and son Volodia) in Dubrovno. Their family managed to survive the war because they were evacuated. Volodia and Galia are now living in Israel with their families. Luba died while they were living in Gorky.Grandmother from mother’s side was Masha Golubkina (maiden name Nebhina). Grandmother’s brother – Aba and his wife Sora Roha were also killed. One more grandmother’s brother Zalman and his wife died before the war. After their parents’ death elder sons Yasha and Leva left Bayevo. Younger son Moisey died at the battlefront.
Another grandmother’s daughter, Beilia, lived with her husband and daughter in a place called Kadino. This family also was killed in the war.
Younger daughter Lena lived in Moscow. Her son died at an early age and daughter is now living with her family in Israel.
Воспоминания Зиновия МАКЛЕРА
Поскольку я уехал из Баево ребенком, вспомнить всех родственников, к сожалению, не смогу. Напишу о тех, кого помню.Я родился в местечке Баево в 1926 году. До поступления в школу проживал там с мамой Голдой Гамишевной, отцом Ароном Нафтольевичем и сестрой Любой. Отец работал в Баево кузнецом-единоличником, а потом уехал в Москву, куда позже переехала вся наша семья.
Дедушка Нафтолий Залманович и бабушка Фрума Гинда жили в Баево. Дедушка тоже был кузнецом и в мою бытность работал в артели, куда входило около 10 человек. До объединения в артель каждый из них единолично обслуживал определенную деревню, и после уборки урожая крестьяне рассчитывались с ним за произведенную работу.
У дедушки были братья – Хоня, Моисей (других не помню), а также сыновья – Иосиф, Арон, Ефим и дочь Кроха.
Незадолго его смерти Григория Меклера (он умер в Москве несколько лет тому назад) о нем был снят фильм.Сыновья Хоны Борух, Гриша и дочери Фира, Дина, Люба еще до войны уехали из Баево. Борух стал летчиком, Фира работала на московском заводе главным металлургом, а вот о Грише стоит сказать особо. Он был дипломатом, работал в Корее и, как это не покажется странным, оказал невольную «услугу» всему человечеству, так как не без его участия во главе Северной Кореи оказался Ким Ир Сен. Подробнее об этой истории можно узнать из интервью с Григорием Меклером, которое есть в Интернете http://www.peoples.ru/military/colonel/mekler.
Жену Иосифа Меклера звали Гита. У них были две дочери Соня и Кроха.
емья Моисея: жена Нехама, дочь Шура, сын Зяма. Эта семья жила в Орше. Моисей работал директором пригородного хозяйства. Когда началась война, он ушел в армию, а семью отвез в Баев.
Это родственники со стороны отца. Все они, также как и те, кого припомнить я не смог, были убиты фашистами.
Дочь бабушки Маши – Нехама, вышла замуж и жила со своей семьей – мужем Иосифом Райхманом, дочерьми Любой и Галей, сыном Володей в Дубровно. Эта семья успела эвакуироваться в годы войны, вернулись после ее окончания в Дубровно, а затем переехала в Горки. Володя окончил Витебский мединститут, Галя – юридический факультет. В настоящее время Володя и Галя с семьями живут в Израиле. Люба умерла в Горках.Бабушку со стороны мамы звали Голубкина Маша (девичья фамилия Набхина). Брат бабушки – Аба, его жена Сора Роха – они тоже погибли. Еще один брат бабушки Залман и его жена умерли до войны. После смерти родителей их старшие сыновья Яша и Лева, уехали из Баева, а младшего Моисея, взяли в семью сына Абы, Боруха Набхина, жившего в подмосковном городе Электросталь. В начале войны Моисей, сразу после окончания школы, ушел на фронт и погиб.
Другая дочь бабушки – Бейля, по мужу Болотина, жила с мужем и дочкой в местечке Кадино. Эта семья тоже погибла в годы войны.
Младшая дочь – Лена, в замужестве Шильникова, жила в Москве. Сын ее рано умер, дочь в настоящее время живет с семьей в Израиле.
Commemorating the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II, I post the details of Soviet operation in North Korea on August, 1945.
On August 9, 1945, the 25th corps under the command of general Chischakov began its operation to North Korea. Its operational goal was “to occupy Chungjin and Wonsan”, two major ports in the eastern part of North Korea with the support of Soviet Pacific Fleet.
The 393th division under the 25th corps began to advance to Unggi and Najin. With air raid on Unggi and Najin, a marine unit landed on Unggi at 19:00 o’clock on August 11. Because Japanese already withdrew from Unggi, the mariners could join the 399th division in two hours, and they continued to advance toward Najin.
At 9:00 o’clock on August 12, another Soviet marine unit landed on Najin and, at 9:00 o’clock on the next day, more mariners landed and joined them. The battle of Najin lasted until the evening of August 13. Soviet casualties were 7 dead and 37 wounded while Japanese 277 dead and 292 wounded.
The next target of 393th division was Chungjin. From August 13, army troops and landing mariners attacked Chungjin in five times. At the first attack, the Soviets had 142 casualties among 181 soldiers. Occupation of Chungin was accomplished on August 16.
Red army landed on Udaejin on August 18 from which Japanese already withdrew. Landing on Wonsan on August 21 was accomplished without resistance. Landing units in Wonsan were joined by army troops which marched from Chungjin on August 25.
On August 22, the red army entered into Pyongyang. On August 26, the commander Chischakov arrived Pyongang by airplane and made an address informing Koreans of the end of Japanese imperial rule. (Continue…)
Commissar [Kike] Gregori Mekler with Kim Il-sung [& Mikhael Khan]http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=83654