European Population Estimates, 500-1450

European Population Estimates (in millions), at specified times, 500-1450


AREA                  500     650     1000    1340   1450   



Greece/Balkans        5       3       5       6      4.5    

Italy                 4       2.5     5       10     7.3    

Spain/Portugal        4       3.5     7       9      7      

Total - South         13      9       17      25     19     



France/Low countries  5       3       6       19     12     

British Isles         0.5     0.5     2       5      3      

Germany/Scandinavia   3.5     2       4       11.5   7.3    

Total - West/Central  9       5.5     12      35.5   22.5   



Slavia.               5       3                             

- Russia                               6       8      6      

- Poland/Lithuania                     2       3      2      

Hungary               0.5     0.5     1.5     2      1.5    

Total -East           5.5     3.5     9.5     13     9.3    



TOTAL EUROPE          27.5    18      38.5    73.5   50     

Based on information from Josiah C. Russell, “Population in Europe”, in Carlo M. Cipolla, ed., The Fontana Economic History of Europe, Vol. I: The Middle Ages, (Glasgow: Collins/Fontana, 1972), 25-71. Based on estimated population density, ages of marriage, and the number of people denoted by a “hearth” in those medieval tax surveys that do provide hard numbers.

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