Kike Krasnoschyok’s 1920 official photo
Kike Avraam Moiseevich Krasnoshchyok
Kike Avraam Moiseevich Krasnoshchyok (“Alexander Mikhailovich Krasnoshchyokov/Krasnoschekov/Krasnoschekoff.” (October 10, 1880 – November 26, 1937) was a Soviet politician, the first Chairman of the Government (Head of the state) of the Far Eastern Republic, and founder of the Prombank.
Born at Chernobyl, he was of Jewish origin and, as a young student in Kiev, joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1897. He was arrested in 1898 and briefly imprisoned, before being exiled to Nikolaievsk where he met Kike Bronstein (“Leon Trotsky”).
After his release he returned to the Ukraine where he joined Kike Yuliy Osipovich Tsederbaum (“Martov”), who became leader of the Mensheviks) in political agitation and organised a workers association in Ekaterinoslav.
He was again arrested and imprisoned in 1901. On his release he was under police surveillance, but escaped to Berlin to avoid exile in Siberia.
The Kike Krasnoshchyokov went to the United States in 1903. He joined the Socialist Labor Party of America and worked as an agitator for the American Federation of Labor. Later he started studying at the University of Chicago at the Law School. In 1912 Kike Krasnoshchyokov graduated from the University and started to work as lawyer. He defended striking workers in the ‘Bread and Roses Strike’ of 1913.
After the February Revolution, he returned to Russia, travelling by ship from Vancouver via Japan, where he was interviewed by agents of the Provisional Government.
In August 1917 the Kike arrived in Vladivostok with his wife and two children. There he became the secretary of the Domestic Servants Union and acted as the union representative on the existing Vladivostok Soviet.
He then joined the city council of Nikolsk-Ussurisk despite his known Bolshevik affiliation, and within two weeks had set up a rival Soviet which elected him its President.
He was at a workers convention in Vladivostok October 28, 1917 when news of the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd reached the city. The convention broke up having failed to agree on whether to recognise the new government, as members of the old Zemstvos opposed the Bolshevik coup and rule by soviets.
Krasnoshchyokov returned to Nikolsk to organise a new conference of soviets which met at Khabarovsk December 11, 1917 to press for rule by soviets throughout the Maritime Province, while a rival conference organised by the Zemstvos opened a day earlier. Failing to agree once more, the Soviet dispersed their rival and set up a Coalition Government in the Amur valley at Khabarovsk in January 1918 called the Far Eastern Council of Peoples Commissars, leaving a minority of members to Zemstvo nominees.
Krasnoshchyokov was elected President but the Blagoveschensk Zemstvo refused to join and was expelled. A new soviet was chosen which then voted to join the Amur government in February 1918, but Vladivostok and the Maritime Province still held out.
In March 1918 Chinese forces crossed the Amur from Aigun to protect its nationals in Blagoveschensk, where they joined a (White) ‘City Guard’ force of about 5,000 and 2,000 Cossacks.
The Soviet was surrounded at Government House protected only by remnants of the old Alexander Kerensky troops and Krasnoshchyokov was promptly imprisoned when he came to intercede. However the Khabarovsk soviet sent more soldiers and 15,000 peasants came to his aid, which enabled the ‘Red’ forces to retake the city a week later.
Krasnoshchyokov was freed and with difficulty managed to restore order among the peasants who were now intent on looting the city after the Whites had fled along with the city bankers and merchants across the river into Chinese territory.
In April 1918 the local soviet dissolved the Vladivostok Zemstvo and city council and declared itself the local government, and in May 1918 recognised the Amur government headed by Krasnoshchyokov. Thus the whole of the Russian Far East was now unified under one government, although this was not to last for very long.
“Russian Civil War”
Krasnoshchyokov had managed at first to maintain cordial relations with the forces of the Czech legion that were awaiting evacuation to Europe in the area, but the local soviet in Vladiviostok was overthrown by a Czech coup 28 June 1918, and Allied intervention soon followed in August 1918 with the landing of Japanese, British and American troops. These proved too strong for the Red forces, who retreated to Khabarovsk after hard battles near Dukhovoe and Kraevska on 24 August 1918.
In September 1918 Krasnoshchyokov disbanded the army in favour of partisan warfare and left his family in the care of the American consul at Khabarovsk to return to the USA. He then went to Blagoveschensk before fleeing into the hills along the river Zeya where he spent three months evading capture by the Japanese.
Under an assumed identity he became a merchant at Nerchinsk and travelled throughout Siberia with anti-Kolchak propaganda.
In May 1919 he was arrested as a spy in Samara but jumped off the train that was taking him to trial at Ufa. He was arrested again soon after this, and this time was sent to Irkutsk in September 1919 where he remained imprisoned until December 28, 1919, when Irkutsk fell under the control of the leftist group (including SRs) which formed the Political Centre. The Kike Krasnoshchyokov was released and headed the Irkutsk Gubkom (regional Bolshevik party committee).
With the whole of Siberia in turmoil, he proposed to the Kike-led Red Army HQ at Tomsk January 18, 1920 the idea of a democratic republic as a buffer state which might be acceptable to the Allied Powers still occupying Eastern Siberia.
Kike Vladimir Ulyanov (“Lenin”) accepted and supported this plan: Kike Lenin valued Krasnoshchyokov’s experience in the USA as he was particularly good at dealing with Americans and had made a favourable impression on the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia. However, by the time he returned, local Bolsheviks had overthrown the “Political Centre” of SR’s and Mensheviks at Irkutsk, and Krasnoshchyokov was told to locate the capital of this state further east at Verkhne-Udinsk, which had been occupied by Red Partisans under General Eiche on March 7, 1920.
It was with great difficulty that Krasnoshchyokov managed to win acceptance from the peasants and partisans for the founding of the Far Eastern Republic, which was declared April 6, 1920, even though he had Lenin’s support.
Krasnoshchyokov himself drew up the constitution in English, before it was translated into Russian. However opposition to him continued among local Bolsheviks, peasants and partisans who wanted union with Russia. They expected the Red Army to fight their way east, to destroy the remnants of Kolchak’s forces (now clustered around Chita under his successor Grigory Semyonov), and to march on to the Pacific and expel the Japanese Army who had taken control of the towns of the Maritime Province (4–5 April 1920).
From April 6, 1920 to August 15, 1921 Kike Krasnoshchyokov was the first Premier Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs (from August 1920 to April 26, 1921) of the newly created Far Eastern Republic.
The Far Eastern Republic
The Far Eastern Republic occupied the territory of modern Zabaykalsky Krai, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, and Primorsky Krai of Russia (the former Transbaikal and Amur oblasts and Primorsky krai).
The republic was recognised by the Japanese Army Command May 11, 1920, and by Soviet Russia May 16, 1920. Thanks to his efforts, the Gongota Agreement was signed 15 July 1920 with General Takayanagi of the Japanese Expeditionary Corps. This established a neutral zone between Verkhne-Udinsk and Chita, allowing the Japanese forces – who were under constant pressure from partisans – to withdraw from Transbaikalia without losing face. The Japanese completed this withdrawal (15 October 1920), and Chita was occupied by the partisan NRA 22 October 1920 despite some resistance by the White forces under General Verzbitsky, who then withdrew south to join Semyonov in Manchuria.
Krasnoshchyokov met General Eiche at Chita in early November, and Chita became the capital of a state as large as Western Europe.
[Henrich Christoforovich Eiche, Commander-in-Chief of the People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic, was a German-Latvian-Russian Communist (not to be confused with Theodor Eicke, commander of the Dachau concentration camp and of the SS Division Totenkopf of the Waffen-SS) who ended up in the GULag.]
The union of the FER with the Maritime province was finalised 10 November 1920. However Krasnoshchyokov’s disdain for collective leadership and the continued opposition from local Bolsheviks to his leadership led to continual clashes, and he was recalled from the FER in April 1921, officially to recover from a bout of TB.
Narkomfin and Prombank
In September 1921 Krasnoshchyokov was appointed to the People’s Commissariat for Finance (Narkomfin), and made a deputy commissar in December 1921, despite the opposition of many of the existing members. Kike Lenin supposedly valued his practical expertise and energy over the Bolshevik bureaucrats who had made a mess of the budget.
[Narkomfin, The People’s Commissariat for Finance (Народный комиссариат финансов], was set up by crypto-Kike Nikolay Nikolayevich Krestinsky in 1920, and after 1921 was run by Kike Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant (“Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov[a]”). Both Kike Krestinsky and Kike “Sokolnikov” were purged and executed in 1937. Kike “Sokolnikov” had returned to Russia in April 1917 along with Vladimir Lenin in the ‘sealed train’, and on arriving in Russia became part of the editorial board of the Bolsheviks’ central party organ. He was a member of the first Politburo, with seven members: Kike “Lenin” (Chuvash/Mordvin/Kalmyk-Kike Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, son of Kike Maria Israilovna “Alexandrovna” Blank), Kike “Zinoviev” (Hirsch Apfelbaum / “Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky” / “Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev[a]”), Kike “Kamenev” (Lev Borisovich Rozenfeld), Kike “Trotsky” (Lev Davidovich Bronstein), “Stalin” (Ioseb Besarionovich Jughashvili), Kike “Sokolnikov” and Bubnov (the least well-known, the only one to use his real name, and apparently the only Russian). After the October Kike Revolution, Kike “Sokolnikov” held various government positions. He was a member of the Kike Adolph Abramovich Joffe-led delegation for peace negotiations with Germany. While Kike Joffe accompanied the signatory team in protest as a consultant, he replaced Kike “Trotsky” as chairman and signed the Brest-Litovsk treaty in 1918 on behalf of the Bolshevik government of Russia. Later, alongside Kike Rosalia Samoilovna Zalkind (“Zemlyachka”), he became commissar of the Eighth army, using this position to order mass shootings. He was appointed People’s Commissar of Finance following the introduction of the New Economic Policy and became a candidate member of the Politburo of the Communist Party in May 1924. (BTW, Kike Zalkind, was a piece of work. Along with Kike Bela Kun, she was one of the organizers of the Red Terror in the Crimea in 1920-1921.)]
Typhus forced Kike Krasnoschyok to step down in March 1922, to the relief of the other commissars, who refused to have him back when he recovered. The Kike was appointed to Presidium of Vesenkha in April 1921 and used this to create a new bank in November 1922 to promote trade and industry – Prombank – leaving the state bank with only the regulation of money and credit, much to the annoyance of the Narkomfin.
In 1922 the American journalist Anna Louise Strong (Commie, later married Kike Joel Shubin) interviewed Krasnoshchyokov about the New Economic Policy (NEP) and about the departure from war communism.
“We must say frankly to the people, `Your government cannot feed all and produce goods for all. We shall run the most necessary industries and feed the workers in those industries. The rest of you must feed yourselves in any way you can.’ This means we must allow private trade and private workshops; it is well if they succeed enough to feed those people who work in them, since no one else can feed them. Later, as state industries produce a surplus, these will expand and drive out private trade.”
The Brik Kikes and Mayakovsky
For three months in 1922 Kike Lilya Brik (née Kagan), her husband, Kike Osip Brik, and Kike Krasnoshchyokov had an affair, which resulted in a temporary rift between the Briks and their lover, Vladimir Mayakovsky.
Kike Lilya Brik’s beauty was “legendary” (indeed, a legend). Commie Pablo Neruda called her “the muse [i.e. the town-bike] of the Russian avant-garde.” She was a daughter of a rich shyster.
[Her sister, Ella Kagan (“Elsa Triolet”) married French cavalry officer André Triolet, who took her to France, where they divorced; and she married Frog Commie Louis Aragon, and became the first authoress to win the Prix Goncourt.]
Kike Osip Brik was the rich son of a Kike jeweler. He studied law. His kike is friend Roman Jakobson wrote: “For his doctoral thesis he wanted to write about the sociology and juridical status of prostitutes and would frequent the boulevards. All the prostitutes there knew him, and he always defended them, for free, in all their affairs.” (Yeah, “free”.)
Francine Du Plessix Gray, Them:
Upon hearing his wife confess that she had gone to bed with the famous young poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, Brik exclaimed “How could you refuse anything to that man?” […] In 1918, when Mayakovsky and the Briks became inseparable, he simply moved in with them. Throughout the rest of his life, he made his home at a succession of flats that the Briks occupied.
After the Osip Kikes hooked up with Kike Krasnoschyok, Mayakovsky signed a two month separation contract with them.
On 28 February 1923 Mayakovsky and Lilya Brik met again and went for several days to Petrograd together. In her 1956 memoirs she wrote:
“I came to the railway station and found him on the platform, waiting for me on the wagon steps. As the train started, Volodya, leaning on the door read me the poem About That. Having finished, he burst into tears, immensely relieved. Now, in the course of those two months I often had pangs of consciousness. Volodya was suffering there alone, while I lived an ordinary life, was seeing people, visiting places. Now I felt happy. For the poem that I’ve just heard wouldn’t have been written should I have not chosen Volodya as my personal ideal and an impersonation of an ideal human being.”
Prombank proved very successful, but when Kike Lenin had his third stroke in March 1923, Kike Krasnoshchyokov lost his only protector.
He had made many enemies in the ranks of the new pro-Stalin kike bureaucracy. In October 1923, Kike Valerian Vladimirovich Kuybyshev announced the arrest of Krasnoshchyokov on charges of corruption.
[BTW, from 1935 to 1991, Samara was named “Kuybyeshev” in honour of that Kike.]
At the time his arrest caused a sensation and his trial was quite widely covered in the West. Alexander Krasnoshchyokov was the first well-known communist supported by Lenin to be sacrificed in a public “showtrial”.
The trial took place in Moscow in March 1924. Kike Krasnoshchyokov faced as the main charges against him that he had given special privileges to his lover Donna Gruz [sounds kikey] and to his brother Iacov, and that he had lived a bourgeois lifestyle. The court found him guilty, ordered him to be fired, had him expelled from The Party, and sentenced him to six years in prison.
Release and Cotton King
Kike Krasnoshchyokov was held in the Lefortovo prison in Moscow, where he contracted pneumonia in November 1924. He was transferred then to the government hospital near the Kremlin. He was amnestied in January 1925 and sent to Yalta to recover.
He returned to Moscow in autumn 1925 to work for the Ministry of Agriculture and devoted his energies to improving the cotton crop in Central Asia.
By 1930 he was head of an institute dedicated to development of cotton and other fibre crops. He married Donna Gruz and they had twin girls in 1934.
Arrest and Execution
In July 1937, Kike Avraam Moiseevich Krasnoshchyok was again arrested. He was sentenced to death for espionage on 25 November 1937; and was shot to death the next day.
OTHER PLAYERS IN THE TRAGEDY OF SOVIET KIKERY
Kike Valerian Vladimirovich Kuybyshev